FEMM - Working Paper Series - 2020


Working Paper Series auf der OVGU-Journals-Plattform


Marie Elisabeth Alert/Horst Gischer/Christian Ilchmann

Analyzing Cost Structures in the Banking Industry – An Unconventional Approach


Our paper deals with empirical and technical problems to derive (conventional) cost functions in banks and other financial institutions. One main reason is based on the still ongoing discussion on inputs and outputs of financial intermediaries. A second obstacle is due to the fact that most of the banks are multi-product firms. The existing literature provides an impressive variety of methods but rather focuses on productivity or efficiency, respectively. We suggest a completely different approach instead which might be suitable to identify the relevant cost drivers in banking. Our “model” uses FDIC Call Report data to outline the procedure exemplarily for North Dakota. Of course, additional improvements are necessary, hence our contribution is work in progress on new ground.

JEL: G21, L21, L23
Keywords: banking industry, cost structure, cost driver


Robin Christmann/Roland Kirstein

You go First! – Coordination Problems and the Standard of Proof in Inquisitorial Prosecution


The prosecution of criminals is costly, and subject to errors. In contrast to adversarial court procedures, the prosecutor is regarded as an impartial investigator and aide to the judge in inquisitorial justice systems. We show in a sequential prosecution game of a Bayesian court that a strategic interaction between these two benevolent enforcement agents exists where each player hopes to freeride on the other one´s investigative effort. This gives rise to inefficient equilibria with excessive operating and error costs. Moreover, we will demonstrate that our results are sensitive to the applied standard of proof and that, more disturbingly, the inefficient outcome becomes more probable when the conviction threshold is raised. Applying the concept of ‘beyond reasonable doubt’, we analyze the impact of the standard of proof and other legal policy instruments on type I and type II errors and operating costs.

JEL: GK14, K41
Keywords: criminal justice, reasonable doubt, litigation, court errors


Roland Kirstein

Some Game Theoretic Aspects of Brexit


The paper initially explains some fundamentals of interactive decision-making (“game theory”) and then applies different approaches of game theory to different aspects of Brexit. The first analysis perceives the 2016 referendum as a “simple voting game” and challenges the view that the observed outcome of about 52% percent in favor of Brexit have to be interpreted that the “vox populi” (and, thus, also the “vox dei”) is in favor of a “no-deal” Brexit. Rather, there seem to have existed three camps among the voters, of whom 25% have actually opted for a no-deal Brexit, whereas 27% seem to have approved Brexit in the expectation of a sensible deal. Hence, the 48% who favored “remain” have been by far the largest homogeneous group, although they fall short of an absolute majority. Social choice theory shows that, in a situation without an option supported by a clear majority, no aggregation procedure – such as majority voting or pairwise binary voting – exists that guarantees collective rationality (Arrow theorem) or satisfies some desirable properties (Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem).

The next analysis scrutinizes the hypothesis that the observed outcome of the referendum was due to the “remainers’” failure to participate. The economic theory of voter participation explains intermediate participation rates as a mixed strategy equilibrium. For the two or three groups mentioned above, the incentives to participate were different. The third model section takes a closer look at the negotiations between the UK and the EU, focusing on the transition from Theresa May to Boris Johnson. A simple Nash bargaining model demonstrates that the bargaining outcome may depend on the preferences of the delegate who negotiates on behalf of the represented party. Switching from one delegate to another, hence, may lead to a more favorable outcome. A final section discusses existing literature on game theoretic analysis of Brexit, which essentially deals with various non-cooperative bargaining models.



Jarmo Haferkamp/Jan Fabian Ehmke

Evaluation of Anticipatory Decision-Making in Ride-Sharing Services


In recent years, innovative ride-sharing services have gained significant attention. Such services require dynamic decisions on the acceptance of arriving trip requests and vehicle routing to ensure the fulfillment of requests. Decision support for acceptance and routing must be made under uncertainty of future requests. In this paper, we highlight that state-of-the-art approaches focus on anticipatory decision-making for either acceptance or routing decisions. Our aim is to evaluate the potential of different levels of anticipation in ride-sharing services. Up to now, it is unclear how the value of information differs between none, partial, or fully anticipatory decision-making processes. To this end, we define and solve variants of the underlying dial-a-ride problem, which differ in the information available about future requests. Using a large neighborhood search, our experimental results demonstrate that ride-sharing services can highly benefit from anticipatory decision-making, while the favorable level of anticipation depends on particular characteristics of the service, esp. the demand-to-service ratio.

Keywords:  ride-sharing, dynamic vehicle routing, anticipation, dial-a-ride problem, large neighborhood search


Corinna Krebs/Jan Fabian Ehmke

Axle Weights in Combined Vehicle Routing and Container Loading Problems


Overloaded axles not only lead to increased erosion on the road surface, but also to an increased braking distance and more serious accidents due to higher impact energy. Therefore, the load on axles should be already considered during the planning phase and thus before loading the truck in order to prevent overloading. Hereby, a detailed 2D or 3D planning of the vehicle loading space is required. We model the Axle Weight Constraint for trucks with and without trailers based on the Science of Statics. We include the Axle Weight Constraint into the combined Vehicle Routing and Container Loading Problem ("2L-CVRP" and "3L-CVRP"). A hybrid approach is used where an outer Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search tackles the routing problem and an inner Deepest-Bottom-Left-Fill algorithm solves the packing problem. Moreover, to ensure feasibility, we show that the Axle Weight Constraint must be checked after each placement of an item. The impact of the Axle Weight Constraint is also evaluated.

Keywords:  Vehicle Routing Problem, Container Loading, 2L-CVRP, 3L-CVRP, Axle Weights


Horst Gischer/Matthias Kowallik

Der Beitrag des Zinsbuchs zum Gesamtergebnis einer Sparkasse


Insbesondere für Sparkassen und andere, relativ kleine regional operie-rende Kreditinstitute stellt der Zinsüberschuss die bei weitem wichtigste Ertragsquelle dar. Dieser bildet sich zum einen durch die am Markt erzielbare Zinsmarge sowie die Bereitschaft zur Fristentransformation, d.h. die Ausnutzung der zumeist positiven Differenz zwischen lang-fristigen Kredit- und kurzfristigen Einlagenzinssätzen. Weitgehend unklar und damit auch Gegenstand der Diskussion ist die faktische Gewichtung dieser beiden Komponenten. Insbeson-dere bei untypisch verlaufenden Zinsstrukturkurven und vor allem bei negativen Zinsniveaus stellt die Fristentransformation eine Strategie dar, die mit erheblichen Ertragsririsiken einher geht. Unsere Analyse versucht, den (historischen) quantitaiven Einfluß der Fristentransformation auf das Betriebsergebnis der Sparkassen abzuschätzen und für die nähere Zukunft zu prognostizieren. Unsere Resultate lassen erwarten, dass die bis dato positiven Ertragswirkungen der Fristentransformation deutlich zurückgehen werden

JEL:  G11, G21, G32


Iurii Bakach/Ann Melissa Campbell/Jan Fabian Ehmke

A Two-Tier Urban Delivery Network with Robot-based Deliveries


In this paper, we investigate a two-tier delivery network with robots operating on the second tier. We determine the optimal number of local robot hubs as well as the optimal number of robots to service all customers and compare the resulting operational cost to conventional truck-based deliveries. Based on the well-known p-median problem, we present mixed-integer programs that consider the limited range of robots due to battery size. Compared to conventional truck-based deliveries, robot-based deliveries can save about 70% of operational cost and even more, up to 90%, for a scenario with customer time windows.


Letzte Änderung: 22.06.2020 - Ansprechpartner: Webmaster